21/12/2017
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First genetic map of the people of Ireland revealed in new Irish DNA Atlas Project

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A new study provides the first fine-scale genetic map of the island of Ireland, revealing patterns of genetic similarity, so far in ten distinct clusters, roughly aligned with the ancient Provinces and major historical events.

The research, led by RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland) and the Genealogical Society of Ireland (GSI) produced the report 'The Irish DNA Atlas; Revealing Fine-Scale Population Structure and History within Ireland' which was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

The Irish DNA Atlas project was co-designed by population geneticists and genealogists who came together to collect DNA samples from 196 Irish individuals with four generations of ancestry linked to specific areas across the island of Ireland. Analyses of the DNA, and comparison with thousands of further samples from Britain and Europe, are revealing geographic clusters within Ireland: so far seven of ‘Gaelic’ Irish ancestry, and three of shared British-Irish ancestry.

Key findings of the Irish DNA Atlas Project

  • That prior to the mass movement of people in recent decades, there were numerous distinct genetic clusters found in specific regions across Ireland
  • Seven of those revealed so far are of ‘Gaelic’ Irish ancestry and describe the borders of either Irish Provinces or historical kingdoms
  • The remaining three are of shared Irish-British ancestry, and are mostly found in the north of Ireland and probably reflect the Ulster Plantations
  • Two of the ‘Gaelic’ clusters together align with the boundaries of the province of Munster, and individually are associated with the boundaries of the kingdoms of Dál Cais and the Eóganacht
  • There are relatively high levels of North-West French-like (probably ‘Celtic’), and evidence of West Norwegian-like (probably Viking) ancestry within Ireland
  • There is evidence of continual, low level migration between the north of Ireland and the south and west of Scotland

Michael Merrigan (GSI), co-author on the paper, said 'for those interested in genealogy and Irish history, this study challenges many of our received narratives on the origins of the people of Ireland. We now get a clearer, scientifically based, map of the distribution and settlement of our ancestral groups across the island of Ireland.

'Historians and students of medieval Ireland have now a wonderful resource on the movements and interrelationships of our ancestor groups through their DNA. This opens up many new and very exciting research opportunities for many disciplines, especially, those researching the Irish medieval genealogies and the history of Irish clans/septs.'

Specific cohort of people

Professor Gianpiero Cavalleri (RCSI), who directed the research, said of the research: 'for our study design to work, it was vital for us to collaborate with the Genealogical Society of Ireland. They helped us reach the very specific cohort of people needed: people who could demonstrate that all 8 of their great-grandparents had been born within 50km of each other. This has allowed us to create a genetic map for the Irish population, with resolution similar to that recently drawn for England. Whilst we are delighted by what the study to date has revealed, this is a live study; the more people who participate the greater resolution we can achieve.'

The Irish DNA Atlas is an ongoing study. If you have ancestry from a specific part of Ireland and you are interested in participating, please contact Séamus O’Reilly from the Genealogical Association of Ireland by e-mail.

Genetic map copyright Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland/Genealogical Society of Ireland.

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